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Relationship Between Sanjiao (aka Triple Warmer, Triple Heater, Triple Burner), Acupuncture, Primo Vascular System (PVS) and Connective Tissue, Fascia, and Membranes aka Connective-Tissue Metasystem 

I am Dr Louis Gordon and I am an acupuncturist. I practice acupuncture from ANTRAC Acupuncture Clinic in Middle Ridge, Toowoomba, 4350, Queensland, Australia. Just as fresh clean water bubbling up from a natural well is vital to sustain life … my WELLNESS information will help YOU to sustain a healthy vibrant life beaming with optimal wellness. Call for more information on (07) 4636 6100.

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What is the Relationship Between Sanjiao (aka Triple Warmer, Triple Heater, Triple Burner), Acupuncture, Primo Vascular System (PVS) and Connective Tissue, Fascia, and Membranes aka Connective-Tissue Metasystem? 

Loofah sponge model of primo vascular system (Bonghan-Fascia Model, Lee and Soh, 2009 and 2011).

The Connective-Tissue Metasystem harbors the vast majority of interstitial fluid in the body. The 2007 Fascia Research Congress summary (48) stated, ‘Loose connective tissue harbors the vast majority of the 15 liters of interstitial fluid’. The Su-wen states: ‘The Triple Burner is the official responsible for the maintenance of the ditches. The water-ways originate from there.’ (Emphasis is mine). A team of researchers (84) is stating that they believe that the newly discovered Primo Vascular System  (PVS) ‘controls the cardiovascular system . . . and the nervous system’. These authors, and many others, consider the PVS to be intimately connected with and part of the acupuncture meridian system. This most likely means that the acupuncture meridian system controls the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, and subsequently, all the organs of the body. If this is proved to be true, and I believe that it is only a matter of time, all medical, physiology, and anatomy textbooks will have to be rewritten. The fact that the supposedly non-existent acupuncture meridian system is in fact a real metasystem and is responsible for producing and controlling all other cells, systems, and organs in the body will be very hard to swallow for all the doubters in the medical arena.

Below are some citations from my book titled The ‘Mystical’ TCM Triple Energizer. Its Elusive Location and Morphology Defined. I discuss here the intimate relationship between the TCM San Jiao, the ‘official responsible for the maintenance of the ditches and water-ways’, the western Connective-Tissue Metasystem which ‘harbors the vast majority of interstitial fluid in the body’, the newly discovered Primo Vascular System  (PVS) which circulates stem cells and the TCM Acupuncture Meridian System. This easy-reading informative book is essential for anyone wanting to know all about the function and location of the Sanjiao (aka San Jiao, Triple Warmer, Triple Heater). This enlightening book can be securely purchased by clicking the ‘BUY NOW’ button at the bottom of this page.

33.2 Connective Tissue Fibers Promote Lymphatic Flow and, if Injured, Cause Edema

In the commentaries on the 25th Difficult Issue on page 313 of Unschuld’s (1) translation of the Nan Ching, Ting Chin declares, ‘In the Ling-shu and in the Su-wen, the treatise “Pen-shu” states: ‘The Triple Burner is a palace acting as central ditch; the passageways of water emerge from it. It is associated with the bladder and it constitutes the palace of uniqueness’ (emphasis is mine). From information discussed in the preceding paragraphs (48), it becomes blatantly obvious that references pertaining to the proven properties of fascia—including ‘loose connective tissue harbors the vast majority of the 15 liters of interstitial fluid’, ‘interstitial flow regulates nutrient transport’, ‘towards lymphatic capillaries’, ‘blood flow to skeletal muscle’, ‘inelastic fascia can promote lymphatic flow’, ‘fluid volume is regulated’, ‘resulting in edema formation’, and ‘fluid flow can increase almost 100 fold within minutes’—all pertain to the passageways of water. From the above research findings, it has been shown that the Connective-Tissue Metasystem exercises control over interstitial fluid, blood and lymph, the three most voluminous liquids in the body. So here we can see that the recent scientific research findings associated with the connective tissues of the body—acting as a central ditch and regulating the passageways of water—are all functions attributed to Three Heaters’ control of all the various fluid distribution throughout the body. I propose that there are other fluid pathways that exist within the body that modern science has not yet uncovered.

33.3 Channel Pathways that Exist within the Body that Modern Science Has Not yet Discovered

From these recent findings, there is overwhelming proof that previously unknown pathways exist within the body. It is for this reason that I have faith in the ancient sages who told us that ‘the Heart is closely connected with the Uterus through the Uterus Vessel (Bao Mai)’ and that ‘the Uterus is related to the Kidneys via a channel called the Uterus Channel (Bao Luo)’. I believe that some ‘simple’ surgeries have severed these microscopic conduits without even the knowledge of their existence on behalf of the surgeon. Subsequently, due to destruction of these ‘unidentified’ pathways, real symptoms due to the damage are dismissed by the doctors as not possible and ‘all in your head’.

33.5 Morphology of the Primo Vascular System

Regarding the characteristics of the primo vascular system (PVS), the article (105) states that the PVS ‘comprises a body-wide web of vascular structures called Bonghan ducts (also known as primovessels). Histological and immunofluorescent investigations have  shown that Bonghan ducts are distinctively different from those of similar-looking lymphatic vessels.’ The article continues, ‘Bonghan ducts, also known as primo vessels, are surrounded by membrane with high concentrations of hyaluronic acid.

33.6 Overview of the Mechanism of the Primo Vascular System

The authors (106) explain that the recently discovered Primo Vascular System (PVS) is a circulatory system present in many animals and human beings.

Astoundingly, the authors state, ‘All human tissues and cells have been suggested to be linked to the PVS. Nucleic acid granules (sanals) have been found to play a crucial role in the physiological functions of the PVS, especially in the regeneration of dead cells. In the PVS, 70 different proteins have been discovered in the liquid and 270 proteins in the vessels, many of them are not normally found in the blood, or in lymph or blood vessels.’ (Emphasis is mine)

33.7 Has the Du Mai Channel Been Finally Elucidated by Modern Science?

Modern-day scientific researchers have found a network of threadlike microchannel structures floating inside the spinal cord and brain of several animal species. In the commentaries of the 23rd Difficult Issue in Unschuld’s (1) translation of the Nanching, on page 291, Yü Shu says, ‘The [Nei-] ching states: “The supervisor vessel starts from the bottommost transportation [hole]”; [from there,] it ascends inside the spine up to the wind palace. There it enters into and becomes attached to the brain. It is four feet five inches long’ (emphasis is mine). So here the Governing Vessel, or Du Mai (or supervisor vessel), is described as commencing midway between the tip of the coccyx and the anus and travelling upwards inside the spine to the wind palace, DU-16 (Feng Fu). What is significant here is that Yü Shu says the vessel ascends inside the spine, which is in the cerebrospinal fluid, and then ‘it enters into and becomes attached to the brain’. Where did Yü Shu derive his correct understanding of this microscopic complex Primo Vascular System?

33.8 I Believe Bong-Han Kim Is the Father of TCM Acupuncture Point and Meridian Anatomy

About fifty years ago, a North Korean professor from Pyongyang Medical University, Bong-Han Kim, revealed the relationship between the TCM acupuncture meridian system and the Bong-Han System (BHS) by injecting a blue dye into an acupuncture point and then observing the dye flowing along the meridian. Researchers today call the Bong-Han System the Primo Vascular System (PVS). His so-called Bonghan Corpuscle (BHC) represented anatomical structures of acupuncture meridian-collaterals. Today, researchers refer to them as a Primo Node (PN).

His third report was the most extensive and conclusive in his description of PVS anatomy and physiology, relating to the acupuncture meridians. The authors state that the work and accomplishments of B. H. Kim are truly enormous and that, since 2002, all his trials that have been repeated and have been absolutely confirmed to be accurate.

33.11 Omnipresent Primo Vascular System Found Inside the Blood and Lymphatic Vessels, in the Cerebrospinal Fluids of the Central Nervous System, and on the Surface of the Various Internal Organs

In their article, regarding the primo vascular system being identified within blood vessels, the authors (34) described an intravascular threadlike structure and discussed ‘in vivo visualization of Bonghan ducts inside blood vessels of mice by using an Alcian blue staining method’.

In the article ‘50 Years of Bong-Han Theory and 10 Years of Primo Vascular System’, the authors (34) summarized the recent findings, stating, ‘Approximately fifty years after BH Kim, the presence of the PVS inside the blood and lymphatic vessels, cerebrospinal fluids of the central nervous system, and on the surface of the various internal organs was indeed confirmed by various techniques developed by the SNU [Seoul National University] team’.

33.12 The PVS May Explain the TCM Six Divisions of Penetration of Perverse Influences

Regarding the penetration of cold or wind-cold pathogens deeper into the body through the TCM six divisions, in the 2013 Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies article titled ‘The Primo Vascular System as a New Anatomical System’, the authors (84) report that comparatively independent networks of PVS have been determined at superficial and at deep levels and that even elaborate organ circulation systems exist.

They believe that acupunctural needles may act as antennae and influence various electromagnetic fields known to be present throughout the body. I found it fascinating to consider that these recent findings about the composition of the PVS show that there are in fact defined nets of circulation of PVS structures at superficial and deeper levels. This recent finding could well explain the TCM theory of the six divisions. The six divisions tend to be remembered more as a philosophical explanation for deepening and exacerbation of disease states in general as clinical manifestations evolve as the pathogenic qi lodges in deeper energetic layers of the body.

33.14 Did Bong-Han Kim Discover What Are Now Known as Pluripotent Adult Stem Cells?

In the article ‘50 Years of Bong-Han Theory and 10 Years of Primo Vascular System’, the authors (34) reported that, 50 years ago, very little was known about the theory of stem cells, especially of the adult stem cell. However, 50 years ago, Bong-Han Kim asserted that the very small (1–5 μm) P-microcell (Sanal) was the main agent responsible for wound healing and regeneration. We now know that those properties are the two fundamental functions of stem cells.

It thus appears that the Bonghan channels have a lot in common with the Triple-Energizer Metasystem in that they are composed of membranes which ‘steam’ and lubricate numerous body structures, including hair, joints, eyes, skin, and even heart valves.

33.17 Professor Kim Discovered a Novel Circulatory System with Therapeutic Effects

Regarding more recent research information on the movement of fluid and cells within the PVS, a very recent 2014 study published in the journal Cancer Cell & Microenvironment (109) showed that ‘migration of tumor cells to secondary sites was more efficient in the PVS than in the lymphatic system. In addition, the PVS is also a conduit for a fluid, which, according to proteomic analyzes contains remarkably high levels of carbohydrate metabolic derivatives that are usually associated with stem cells, cancer cells and differentiated myeloid cells’ (emphasis is mine). The article poignantly continued, ‘Thus, the PVS has the potential to transport growth and communication factors between primary and secondary tumor sites, thereby enhancing the oncogenicity of tumor cells at secondary sites’. Thus, the PVS has been proven to transport ‘growth and communication factors’ throughout the body. Very interestingly, this is what the Triple- Energizer Metasystem also does. [Emphasis is mine].

33.18 The PVS May Control the Cardiovascular System and the Nervous System

This team of researchers (84) is stating that they believe that the PVS ‘controls the cardiovascular system . . . and the nervous system’. Remember that these authors, and many others, consider the PVS to be intimately connected with and part of the acupuncture meridian system. This means that the acupuncture meridian system controls the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, and subsequently, all the organs of the body. If this is proved to be true, and I believe that it is only a matter of time, all medical, physiology, and anatomy textbooks will have to be rewritten. The fact that the supposedly nonexistent acupuncture meridian system is in fact a real metasystem and is responsible for producing and controlling all other cells, systems, and organs in the body will be very hard to swallow for all the doubters in the medical arena. 

33.24 The ‘Original Influences’ (Yuan Qi) Engender Vibrant Life

The quote [from the commentaries on the eighth Difficult Issue on page 133 of Unschuld’s (1) translation of the Nan Ching, namely] ‘When the original influences are cut off, death follows’ shows that should our Yuan Qi become depleted, the outcome is death. Stem cells throughout the body act as a repair system, replenishing adult tissues. Obviously, if stem cells are abundant and healthy, we experience wellness, potent healing, and longevity. It appears that Primo Vascular System P-microcells (Sanals) are the main agent for wound healing and regeneration, which are the two fundamental roles of stem cells. Could the pluripotent P-microcells constitute a major component of the Yuan Qi?

33.31 Kidneys Are the Proper Source of Yuan Qi; The Triple Burner Is an Additional Source

In further commentaries on the 38th Difficult Issue on pages 395–396 of Unschuld’s (1) translation of the Nan Ching, regarding the Triple Burner representing an additional source of original influences, the scholar Hua Shou relates, ‘The Triple Burner governs all the influences; it is an additional transmitter of original influences. [That is to say], the original influences depend on the guidance of the [Triple Burner] in their ceaseless hidden movement and secret circulation through the entire body’ (emphasis is mine).

I propose that the Primo Vascular System is a structural component of the Connective-Tissue Metasystem (San Jiao or Triple-Energizer Metasystem), and I suggest that the P-microcells flowing within the microtubules do indeed depend on the ‘ceaseless hidden movement and secret circulation through the entire body’ within hollow ducts of the PVS incorporated within the Triple-Energizer Metasystem. I propose that the P-microcells are an essential component of the Yuan Qi.

33.32 The Triple Burner Is the Special Envoy Transmitting the Yuan Qi or PVS P-Microcells

In the commentaries on the 66th Difficult Issue on page 561 of Unschuld’s (1) translation of the Nan Ching, it states, ‘The Triple Burner is the special envoy that transmits the original influences.’ The source points of a particular meridian will remediate the injured organ of that meridian. For example, the yuan point (source point) of the Liver, Liver 3, will benefit the Liver organ when there is illness there. So thanks to the Triple-Energizer Metasystem, the healing Yuan Qi arrives at Liver 3, and then the Yuan Qi (healing Primo Vascular System P-microcells (Sanals)) are directed to the ailing Liver. Note that these pluripotent P-microcells (stem cells) are the main agents for wound healing and regeneration. I believe it is only a matter of time before it is confirmed that the many different functions of the different types of acupuncture channels are due to the circuitry of the PVS ducts. 

33.34 Exterior Primo Vessels Covered by a Thick Membrane of Connective Tissues

Regarding the structures for exterior primo vessels, the book (7), on page 11, states, ‘These are composed of ducts and corpuscles along the blood vessels and nervous system. They are covered by a thick membrane of connective tissues.’ (Emphasis is mine).

33.35 Collagen May Facilitate Tuning Photon Emissions throughout the Entire Body

Regarding the properties of the PVS, in the 2013 Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies article titled ‘The Primo Vascular System as a New Anatomical System’, the authors (84) state, ‘The cells of the PVS show smooth muscle-like excitability with calcium channels and the subvessels have adventitia that contains connective tissue. Collagen is the main component of the connective tissue.’ The authors note that research indicates that collagen affects photon emissions originating from biomolecular sources and that collagen may very well be capable of fine-tuning the photon emissions known to be propagated throughout the body. This observation strongly supports the theory that the PVS behaves as an omnipresent optical conduit for biophoton emissions throughout the body. (emphasis is mine).

This recent (2013) research confirms that the PVS is composed of ubiquitous connective tissue and is predominantly collagen and, as such, is intimately related to the omnipresent Connective-Tissue Metasystem that pervades the body. Note that the authors suggest that the light propagation function of the PVS accounts for the instantaneous effect after needling acupoints, suggesting that the acupuncture meridians are indeed made up from or involved with the PVS. 

33.36 Connective Tissue, Fascia, and Membranes Are Omnipresent throughout the Body

Regarding the distribution of the PVS, note what the authors stated above when they said, ‘The PVS is associated with the vessels and the nerves and is abundant in loose connective tissue, fat tissue, serous membranes, and fascias; therefore, it is possible that it is distributed as a web among all body systems, including the tissues of organs’ (emphasis is mine). This recent (2013) research again confirms that the PVS is composed of ubiquitous connective tissue and that the PVS is intimately associated with and abundant in loose connective tissue, serous membranes, and fascias. As it is likely ‘distributed as a web among all body systems, including the tissues of organs,’ this puts the PVS/connective-tissue network in the same location that the Triple Energizer occupies. For this reason, I believe there is no doubt that the Connective-Tissue Metasystem includes elements of the Primo Vascular System and is intimately related to the Triple- Energizer Metasystem.

33.39 When the ‘Original Influences’ or Yuan Qi or Primo Vessels Are Cut Off, Death Follows

……………………………………………………….. I believe there is no doubt that the DNA-based sanals (P-microcells) circulating throughout the entire body within the Primo Vascular System constitute a major component (if not all) of what the ancients called Yuan Qi.

33.40 Primo Vascular System Development and Proliferation Precedes the formation of all Other Structures during Embryogenesis

Regarding the critical initial formation of the PVS during embryogenesis, the book (7), on page 13, states: 

Proliferation of the [PVS] meridians takes place ahead of proliferation of any other organs, such as the blood vessels and the nervous system. Embryo development follows the following steps: the step for the formation of the primo vessel blast cell occurs 7–8 h after fertilization; the step for primordial primo vessel occurs 10 h after fertilization; the step for the formation of primitive primo lumens occurs 15 h after fertilization; and the final step for the completion of the primo lumens occurs 20–28 h after fertilization. The fact that the proliferation of the PVS precedes the formation of other structures suggests the PVS plays an important role during development of an organism. (Emphasis is mine)

The PVS is shown here to be intimately and inextricably involved with embryogenesis from as early as 7–8 hours post fertilization. I suggest that this is the initiation of the gate of life and also of the initiation of the Triple-Energizer Metasystem. This PVS structural conception is obviously tied to ‘the original influences which man has received from father and mother’, as discussed in the eighth Difficult Issue of the Nan Ching. As this omnipresent PVS structure is ubiquitous throughout the adult body, the embryological vestige is truly dispersed throughout the entire body via the omnipresent Connective-Tissue Metasystem that is the domicile of the Triple- Energizer Metasystem, which is intimately entwined with the PVS.

33.41 The Connective Tissue Fascial System Starts about 2 weeks into Embryological Development

On the web article entitled ‘Fascia & Tensegrity’, Myers (110) states: 

Our single fascial system starts about 2 weeks into development as a fibrous gel that pervades and surrounds all the cells in the developing embryo. It is progressively folded by gastrulation and the rest of the motions of development into the complex layers of fascia we see in the adult. In fact there is no discontinuity in the layers of fascia, so ‘layers’ is a useful but deceptive concept (like ‘muscles’). (Emphasis is mine)

Likely, initially after fertilization, the miniscule Primo Vascular System conduits are able to support themselves inside the miniscule fertilized egg. A human oocyte is only about 100 μm in diameter. As further cellular differentiation and then gastrulation occurs, a more stable and strong supporting and protective infrastructure would be required. Enter the supportive omnipresent connective tissue structure to secure and protect the delicate Primo Vascular System.

33.42 The Primordial System that Engenders All Other Major Body Systems and Organs

Regarding the primordial body system that engenders the major body systems, in the 2013 article titled The Primo Vascular System as a New Anatomical System, the authors (84) comment that morphological scientists are at a loss to propose a new biomedical model that clarifies the existence of new, intricate biological systems, such as the Primo Vascular System (PVS). It is absolutely astounding that a ubiquitous, physical biological system that integrates the features of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and hormonal systems has remained undiscovered until recently. The authors believe that the PVS constitutes the physical framework in which the acupuncture points and acupuncture meridians reside. Discovery of the sophisticated morphological structure abounding with organization and communication obviously assumes an architectural design at the foundation level of life. This discovery of the integrated functionality of the PVS has profoundly altered the basic tenets of biology and medicine since the PVS is intimately involved in the initiation, development, and the integrated functions of living organisms.  According to Western medicine, acupuncture meridians have no known anatomical foundation, and unknown nervous, circulatory, endocrine, and immune mechanisms mediate the effects of acupuncture. The discovery of this PVS may well explain why acupuncture so powerfully benefits nearly all medical conditions because the acupuncture meridian system integrates and regulates the features of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and hormonal systems. Many hardened skeptics of acupuncture will have to eat lots of ‘humble pie’.

33.47 Dominating Functions of the Polar Bodies for All Aspects of Embryonic Development

If the PVS actually is a major component of the original San Jiao, as I postulate, this agrees with TCM theory about San Jiao’s function of maintaining harmony throughout all body structures. The authors believe that the PVS ‘controls all developmental processes of the products of conception, including trophoblast, inner cell mass differentiation, zona hatching and differentiation’. The San Jiao is believed to be the Fu organ that is responsible for numerous functions of homeostasis throughout the adult body, including energy production, digestion, fluid metabolism and synthesis, immune protection, hormonal balance, temperature regulation, detoxification through urine and feces formation, nutrient synthesis, etc. It would make sense that the PVS/San Jiao’s function of maintaining harmony throughout all body structures, systems, and organs would continue from embryogenesis throughout the rest of the creature’s life.

33.51 The PVS Has Been Found to Exist throughout the Biological World

Regarding the distribution of the Primo Vascular System throughout nature, the book (7), on page 13, explains that the PVS apparently exists throughout the entire biological world and is found in both invertebrates and vertebrates as well as the mammalians and is present in all multicellular living organisms, including plants. …… The author suggests that all organisms have PVS meridians. 

33.69 Possible Electrical Charge Transmission through the Liquid of the Primo Vascular System

Regarding the possible role of PVS liquids transferring information instantly throughout the entire body, in the article titled ‘Can the Primo Vascular System (Bong Han Duct System) Be a Basic Concept for Qi Production?’ in the International Journal of Integrative Medicine, the authors (122) state: 

An additional significant role of the liquid is the dispersion of electrical signs throughout the PVS system, which could provide a structure-based issue for the wellknown phenomenon of low electrical obstructions at AP [Acupuncture Points]. A hypothetical function of the liquid is light circulation, which may explain the almost immediate impressions felt throughout the entire body when some needling is conducted at AP. It has been noticed that more than 80% of the APs and 50% of the meridian intersections of the arm seemed to coincide with inter- or intramuscular connective tissue planes. (Emphasis is mine)

While some researchers (84) believe that the PVS is the major substrate for the acupuncture meridian system, there appears to be no doubt that the Connective-Tissue Metasystem is also involved in the relationship. Perhaps because the components of the PVS are so very small in themselves, they require the supportive aspect of the Connective-Tissue Metasystem to perform their task. One could also ask, if the connective-tissue matrix is only present for the support of the PVS, why would it be necessary for the predominant collagen fibers to possess such incredible bioelectrical characteristics, including fiber optic and piezoelectric properties?

33.72 Is the PVS the Physical Substrate for the Acupuncture Points and Meridians?

Incredibly, the authors state that the Primo Vascular System constitutes the ‘physical substrate for the acupuncture points and meridians’. But more noteworthy is the fact that the PVS is ‘the oldest morphological functional system’. I think this is extremely funny and ironic. Note that many ancient scholars referred to the Triple Heater as origin. For example, in the commentaries on the 66th Difficult Issue on page 569 of Unschuld’s (1) translation of the Nan Ching, while discussing the yuan points (origin or source points) on the 12 meridians, scholar Hua Shou states, ‘“Origin” represents an honorable designation for the Triple Burner.’ The authors quoted above believe that the PVS is ‘the oldest morphological functional system’. I believe that the PVS/Triple Burner complex is the primordial, original organ to be formed during embryogenesis and subsequently deserves the honorable designation of ‘origin’. Thus, I propose that the primordial PVS and the associated Connective- Tissue Metasystem constitute the Triple Burner or Triple-Energizer Metasystem. I believe this is ironic. Modern scientific researchers conclude that the PVS is ‘the oldest morphological functional system’, while many modern acupuncturists unfortunately believe that the Triple Burner (Triple Energizer) ‘has a name but no form’ or no morphology.  

REFERENCES:

(1) Unschuld, P. U., Nan Ching: The Classic of Difficult Issues (e-book edn, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), 771. With commentaries by Chinese and Japanese authors from the third through the twentieth century.

(7) Soh, K. S., K. A. Kang, D. K. Harrison, The Primo Vascular System: Its Role in Cancer and Regeneration (Springer, 2012).

(34) Soh, K. S., Kang KA, Y. H. Ryu, ‘50 Years of Bong-Han Theory and 10 Years of Primo Vascular System’ (cited 2013). Available from <http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/587827/>.

(48) Findley, T. W. and M. Shalwala, ‘The Fascia Research Congress from the 100 Year Perspective of Andrew Taylor Still’ (2012). Available from <https://fasciaresearchsociety.org/sites/default/files/frc/still-100yrs-findley.pdf>.

(84) Stefanov, M., M. Potroz, J. Kim, J. Lim, R. Cha, M. H. Nam, ‘The Primo Vascular System as a New Anatomical System’, Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, 6/6 (2013), 331–8.

(105) Wikimedia Foundation Inc., ‘Primo-Vascular System’ (2014). Originally available from <http://au.wow.com/wiki/Primo-vascular_system>. Moved to <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Bong-han>.

(106) Avijgan, M. and M. Avijgan, ‘Does the Primo Vascular System Originate from the Polar Body’, Integrative Medicine International, 1/2 (214), 108–18.

(109) Soh, K. S. and J. S. Yoo, ‘A Transformative Approach to Cancer Metastasis: Primo Vascular System as a Novel Microenvironment for Cancer Stem Cells’, Cancer Cell & Microenvironment, 1/3 (2014).

(110) Myers, T., ‘Fascia & Tensegrity’ (2014). Available from <http://www.anatomytrains.com/fascia/>.

(122) Avijgan, M. and M. Avijgan, ‘Can the Primo Vascular System (Bong Han Duct System) Be a Basic Concept for Qi Production?’, International Journal of Integrative Medicine, 1/20 (2016), 1–10.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

I wish to sincerely thank Dr Paul U. Unschuld for the selfless and tireless work he has committed to make many ancient Chinese medical classics available in English for study and research. My book is based predominantly around his scholarly work ‘Nan-Ching: The Classic of Difficult Issues’. I also wish to sincerely thank Professor Unschuld for permission to use citations of his translation in my book. His translation of ‘Nan-Ching: The Classic of Difficult Issues’ can be purchased from the following link: https://www.amazon.com/Nan-ching_The-Classic-Difficult-Comparative-Studies/dp/0520053729

To Securely Purchase the Book, Click the ‘BUY NOW’ Button!

 

 

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             Sanjiao’s Mystique Demystified

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