Alternative Natural Therapy Relaxation and Acupuncture Clinic Logo

Investigation into Brown Adipose Tissue Function and Brown Adipose Tissue Location and White Adipose Tissue Function and Location is Showing some Remarkable Findings. While Brown Adipose Tissue in Adults is Less Common than BAT in Children a Small Amount of Brown Adipose Tissue Goes a Long Way when it comes to Biological Functions. White Adipose Tissue has been shown to Have Endocrine Function

I am Dr Louis Gordon and I am an acupuncturist. I practice acupuncture from ANTRAC Acupuncture Clinic in Middle Ridge, Toowoomba, 4350, Queensland, Australia. Just as fresh clean life-giving water bubbling up from a natural spring is vital to sustain life, my WELLNESS information will help YOU to sustain a healthy vibrant life beaming with optimal wellness. Call for more information on (07) 4636 6100.

MISSION STATEMENT: “I aim to get my patients as WELL as possible, as quickly as possible, and then keep them WELL”.

1360310678_Facebook1360314606_Twitter1360314763_youtube_oldAcupuncture YouTube video channel for Acupuncture videos.1360323267_Linkedin

  How has Investigation into Brown Adipose Tissue Function and Brown Adipose Tissue Location and White Adipose Tissue Function and Location Shown Remarkable Findings? Regarding Biological Functions, Why does a Small Amount of Brown Adipose Tissue Go a Long Way? How has White Adipose Tissue been shown to Possess an Endocrine Function?

At this stage of scientific endeavor, there are three different defined types of adipose tissue, which are named based on the color of the tissue. They are Brown Adipose Tissue, Beige Adipose Tissue, and White Adipose Tissue. White adipose tissue is by far the most voluminous of the three types of fatty tissue. When I went to college, fat was just fat and was quite unremarkable. Recent research has confirmed that there are actually three subcategories of fat and that the properties of the different forms of fat are truly remarkable. I will now discuss recent scientific findings about adipose tissue.

This enlightening book is easy to understand, and is essential reading for everyone wishing to know more about the function and location of Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) and how Brown Adipose Tissue, Beige Adipose Tissue, and White Adipose Tissue complements the mysterious Sanjiao and the biochemical and biological processes that are being performed by the ubiquitous Sanjiao which supervises the Brown Adipose Tissue which governs temperature regulation and energy expenditure throughout the entire body. Facets of these two intricate systems are being discovered and verified by modern scientific research on a daily basis. This informative book can be securely purchased by clicking the ‘BUY NOW’ button at the bottom of this page.

Summary of Chapter 45

The article by Kathleen Doheny (197) titled ‘The Truth about Fat’ notes that scientists find fat very intriguing and more so every day. ‘Fat is one of the most fascinating organs out there,’ says Aaron Cypess, MD, PhD, an instructor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and a research associate at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. He said, ‘We are only now beginning to understand fat.’ Note that Cypess stated, ‘Fat is one of the most fascinating organs out there,’ thus showing that he feels that the adipose system present throughout the body warrants being considered an organ.

Note that mitochondrial inner membranes are required to produce energy in the form of ATP. In warm-blooded animals, body heat is maintained by signaling the mitochondria to perform their function via the protein aptly named thermogenin (i.e. producer of heat). Brown adipose tissue is highly specialized for this thermogenesis as each BAT cell has a higher number of mitochondria compared to more typical cells. Secondly, these BAT ‘mitochondria have a higher than normal concentration of thermogenin in the inner membrane’. In neonates (newborn infants), brown adipose tissue makes up about 5% of the body mass and is located on the back, along the upper half of the spine and toward the shoulders. This BAT is of great importance to avoid lethal cold as hypothermia is a major death risk for premature neonates. Li Chiung stated, ‘The Triple Burner represents nothing but membranes.’ The article cited above states that ‘mitochondrial inner membranes are required to produce energy in the form of ATP.’ I believe that the Triple-Energizer Metasystem is aka the PVS/Connective-Tissue Metasystem and that the role of the Triple Heater to produce energy and heat (thermogenesis) extends down microscopically to the ‘mitochondrial inner membranes’. It is an interesting scientific finding that thermogenic BAT is distributed on the most yang region of the most yang body surface.

Regarding the distribution of BAT throughout the body, authors Sacks and Symonds (200) state, ‘Its anatomical distribution is likely to confer survival value by protecting critical organs from hypothermia by adaptive thermogenesis. . . . In view of the diverse locations and potential differences in responsiveness between BAT depots, it is likely that BAT will be shown to have much more subtle and thus previously overlooked functions and regulatory control mechanisms.’ According to the authors (200), the three major anatomical locations of BAT distribution are around blood vessels, around hollow organs, and around solid organs.

It appears that the BAT organ system is specifically designed to generate heat throughout the entire body, in the Upper Heater (‘around epicardial coronary artery and cardiac veins as well as mediumsized muscular arteries and veins including the internal mammary and the intercostal artery branches from the subclavian and aorta’), in the Middle Heater (‘as well as greater omentum and transverse mesocolon in the peritoneal cavity’), and in the Lower Heater (‘in the inguinal area’). As the Triple Heater has the role of heating the body, it can be seen that the BAT organ system compliments the Triple Heater organ in accomplishing this biological function.

Regarding the findings of new scientific research, in the 2014 article titled ‘Researchers Find Healthy Brown Fat Regulates Your Blood Sugar’, Dr Joseph Mercola (201) advises that brown adipose tissue (BAT) may help regulate blood sugar levels in humans and that failing Brown Adipose Tissue as individuals age may be the cause of ‘middle-age spread’.

In 2015, Mercola (203) reported that the fat layers in the skin of mice thickened after being exposed to pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and mice that were incapable of forming new fat cells were more prone to infection. It thus appears that subcutaneous fat cells secrete a small-molecule peptide called cathelicidin, specifically in response to infection. The research suggests that human subcutaneous fat cells may serve as an important germ-fighting barrier against infection. This is in keeping with the TCM concept that defensive Wei Qi circulates in the superficial layers of the body.

That fat cells (adipocytes) comprise a key endocrine organ is unquestionable. A large amount of recent scientific research proves beyond doubt that much-maligned fat tissue has a double life and is actually also an endocrine organ. For example, the satiety hormone leptin is produced by fat cells and is secreted into our bloodstream and reduces a person’s appetite. The recently discovered adipocytesecreted energy-regulating hormone called adiponectin (also known as adipoQ or ACRP30) is an insulin-sensitizing and antiatherosclerotic hormone.

The 2015 article titled ‘Adipose Tissue’ (202) advises that a large array of different hormones is released from adipose tissue and that they are responsible for various functions within the body. The 2015 article advised that Adiponectin is released from adipose tissue. Adiponectin protects against developing type-2 diabetes as it increases the body’s sensitivity to the effects of insulin. Apolipoprotein E and Lipoprotein lipase are released from adipose tissue. They play a part in fat storage and metabolism and the processing of fat stores to release energy. The article reported the following as further examples of these:

  • Aromatase, which is involved in sex hormone metabolism.
  • TNF alpha, IL-6 and leptin, which are collectively termed ‘cytokines’ and are involved in sending messages between cells.
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, which is involved in the clotting of blood.
  • Angiotensin, which is involved in blood pressure control.


(197) Doheny, K., ‘The Truth About Fat’ (updated 13 July 2009). Available from <>.

(200) Sacks, H., M. E. Symonds, ‘Anatomical Locations of Human Brown Adipose Tissue: Functional Relevance and Implications in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes’, Diabetes, 62/6 (2013), 1783–1790.

(201) Mercola, J., ‘Researchers Find Healthy Brown Fat Regulates Your Blood Sugar’ (updated 08 August 2014). Available from <>.

(202) Anonymous, ‘Adipose Tissue’ (2015). Available from <>.

(203) Mercola, J., ‘Fat Beneath Skin May Ward Off Infections’ (2015). Available from <>.


I wish to sincerely thank Dr Paul U. Unschuld for the selfless and tireless work he has committed to make many ancient Chinese medical classics available in English for study and research. My book is based predominantly around his scholarly work ‘Nan-Ching: The Classic of Difficult Issues’. I also wish to sincerely thank Professor Unschuld for permission to use citations of his translation in my book. His translation of ‘Nan-Ching: The Classic of Difficult Issues’ can be purchased from the following link:

To Securely Purchase the Book, Click the ‘BUY NOW’ Button!




             Sanjiao’s Mystique Demystified


I supply WELLNESS Newsletters to my patients and all other parties who are interested in optimizing their health and wellness potential.  ANTRAC WELLNESS Newsletters are jam-packed full of current powerful health-related information to help you attain optimal wellness and vitality and start living life to the full. Did I mention that the Newsletters are FREE?  To confirm my promise of supplying vital information on all health issues, CLICK on “Wellness Newsletters” Navigation Bar above to sample the rich contents of the Newsletters.

If YOU haven’t already signed up and you would like to receive future ANTRAC WELLNESS Newsletters every 3 weeks hot off the press to your inbox, just click the Opt-In link below and supply your Email Address, First Name and Last Name. Subscription is absolutely FREE. How easy is that? I do NOT send out SPAM or supply your details to anyone else.