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Primo Vascular System (PVS) Microstructure May Reveal How Acupuncture Works



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 How May Primo Vascular System (PVS) Microstructure Reveal How Acupuncture Works?

Professor Vodyanoy confirmed Primo Vascular System existence that could provide a scientific foundation for acupuncture

Professor Vodyanoy confirmed Primo Vascular System existence that could provide a scientific foundation for acupuncture.

When Original Hypotheses Contradict Conventional Paradigms, Years of Skepticism Occur

In the 2016 article titled ‘Auburn scientist discovers microstructure of primo-vascular system, revealing possible foundation of how acupuncture works’, Charles Martin (1) stated, ‘Breakthroughs in science naturally follow years, often centuries, of skepticism because untested ideas go against conventional thought. Yet discoveries continue to amaze us and unleash the knowledge that will become commonplace for future generations.’

Professor Vitaly Vodyanoy, a native of Russia, is professor of anatomy and physiology in the College of Veterinary Medicine of Auburn University, Alabama, in the United States of America. Vodyanoy proposes that acupuncture and laser acupuncture activate the Primo Nodes of the Primo Vascular System (PVS), and trigger the release of “stem cells that flow to organs where they replace injured cells and become organ cells.”

Auburn University Professor Vitaly Vodyanoy has used his patented microscopy system to confirm the existence of a primo-vascular system that could provide a scientific foundation for acupuncture and other treatments such as osteopathic manipulation. The illustration on the computer screen (above) shows the microstructure of the primo-vascular system. (Photo by Melissa Humble.)

Diagram of the San Jiao Energy and Fluid Production Cycle titled ‘Formation of Qi, Blood Jing, Jin & Ye’

Diagram of the San Jiao Energy and Fluid Production Cycle titled ‘Formation of Qi, Blood Jing, Jin & Ye’

For thousands of years, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has taught that the San Jiao Organ is the “Official in charge of irrigation” and further, the San Jiao has mastery over energy production, and the nervous, circulatory, endocrine and immune systems. That is obviously an extremely important role. Ironically, many ancient and modern TCM practitioners incorrectly believe that San Jiao is not a tangible organ, but rather is a compilation of biological and biochemical processes that occur throughout the body and affect all of the other eleven organs. This denial of San Jiao’s literal physical existence is based on two words, namely “no form”, which were uttered by Yüeh-jen in the TCM medical classic, the Nan Ching, where it was stated “the Triple Heater has a name but no form”. Unfortunately, what he meant was misunderstood. When Yüeh-jen stated that San Jiao had “no form”, he did not mean it did not exist! He meant it literally had “no form”, no definitive shape, no defined configuration, or no morphological form. Of course San Jiao exists! It is a formless, shapeless, amorphous, indistinct, and compared to the other 11 instantly recognisable organs, DUE TO THEIR SHAPE, the San Jiao ORGAN is unrecognizable because of it lack of distinct morphological shape or form.

In the 1997 spiral-bound book titled ‘Student Manual on the Fundamentals of Traditional Oriental Medicine’, the author, Tyme (3) presents a brilliant diagram of the convoluted San Jiao Energy and Fluid Production Cycle titled ‘Formation of Qi, Blood Jing, Jin & Ye’.

I propose that the Primo Vascular System is an integral component of the San Jiao Organ complex or what I call the Triple Energizer Metasystem. I define exactly the location and morphology of the San Jiao in more detail here and here. In my book I go into great detail about this topic.

The San Jiao Organ (aka Triple Energizer, Triple Heater, Triple Burner) is a very misunderstood and underappreciated organ in TCM and also in the west. My aspiration is to glorify the San Jiao ORGAN (aka Sanjiao, Triple Warmer, Triple Heater or Triple Energizer). Consequently, I have written a text book committed to demonstrating that the San Jiao Organ is a legitimate organ complex within the body. The book titled The ‘Mystical’ TCM Triple Energizer. Its Elusive Location and Morphology Defined (2) is exhaustive in research and full of information that vindicates the ancient TCM sages who fully appreciated the importance of water’s dynamic energetic capacity in driving biological and biochemical processes throughout the entire human body.

Professor of Anatomy and Physiology Confirms Existence of Primo Vascular System

Professor Vitaly Vodyanoy performs research at Auburn University, Alabama, in the United States. Vodyanoy, Ph.D., is professor of anatomy and physiology in the College of Veterinary Medicine. In his article, Martin (1) stated, “Professor Vodyanoy has used his personally invented, patented microscopy system to confirm the existence of a primo-vascular system that could provide a scientific foundation for acupuncture and other treatments such as osteopathic manipulation.” Martin reported that Professor Vodyanoy has shown “the microstructure of the miniscule, translucent system of vessels, subvessels and stem cell-filled nodes—together making up the primo-vascular system—running throughout a rat’s body, appearing in and on blood vessels, organ tissue and the lymphatic system.”

Vodyanoy has been researching the Primo Vascular System (PVS), and using High Resolution Light Microscopy, he has characterized Primo Nodes and Primo Vessels. His ground-breaking work has been published in the book, “The Primo Vascular System: Its Role in Cancer and Regeneration,” in 2012. He subsequently also published three research papers on the PVS in 2015-16.

Martin stated:

Vodyanoy is among a select group of scientists in the world researching the primo-vascular system. He is a founding member of the International Society of Primo Vascular System established by professors Kwang-Sup Soh of Seoul National University in South Korea and Kyung Kang of the University of Louisville. Vodyanoy participated in the organization’s first international conference in 2010 in South Korea and is on the organizing committee for next conference planned for 2018, also in South Korea.

Transparent PVS Vessels Turn a Yellowish Color when Touched

Vodyanoy reported, “Even with our microscope, you cannot see the vessels until they are touched because they are transparent, but they turn a yellowish color when touched. The width of the node is only 1 mm, and the fine structure of the node can only be seen using high-resolution light microscopy.” Vodyanoy further noted, “The rat is an excellent model for research before studies are conducted with humans.”

Professors of Anatomy and Physiology Believe Acupuncture Points Release Stem Cells

In late 2015, Professor Randy Kulesza, Ph.D., from Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (LECOM), Pennsylvania, visited Vodyanoy in Auburn to discuss the primo-vascular system, which led to a two-year grant from LECOM to fund Vodyanoy’s study. Martin (1) stated:

Kulesza is a professor of anatomy at LECOM and has been teaching gross anatomy, embryology, histology and neuroscience for 15 years at the school. His research lab has characterized the human auditory brainstem and has identified brainstem hypoplasia in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. He aims to characterize the primo-vascular system in humans and examine the potential relationships between this system and osteopathic manipulative therapy.

Martin reported that Vodyanoy and Kulesza are collaborating to test Vodyanoy’s hypothesis that the Primo Nodes “when activated by acupuncture, osteopathic manipulation, pressure or laser, release stem cells that flow to organs where they replace injured cells and become organ cells.” Martin noted, “An example of an acupuncture point would be one located below the knee that is thought to connect to the pancreas. If Vodyanoy’s theory holds true, stimulating the point sends stem cells to the pancreas where they regenerate and repair the organ.” This acupoint is Spleen 9 (Yin Ling Quan), meaning Yin Mound Spring. Spleen 9 on the right side is believed to remediate the Spleen, while Spleen 9 on the left side is believed to remediate the pancreas. 

Hypotheses of Osteopathy Founder, Andrew Taylor Still, are being Vindicated

Nineteenth century American physician and Civil War surgeon, Andrew Taylor Still, founded osteopathic medicine with the keystone belief being “the body possesses self-regulatory mechanisms, having the inherent capacity to defend, repair and remodel itself.” This recently determined capacity of the PVS to regenerate cells and tissues agrees exactly with the principle formulated by Still. Regarding this paradigm, Vodyanoy stated, “We are pushing the boundaries of accepted or recognized anatomy and physiology.” He poignantly added, “Not many people are working on the primo-vascular system because it goes against current science concepts.”

While acupuncture is generally met with skepticism by Western doctors, verification of Vodyanoy’s hypothesis could allow a closer relationship between the two medical philosophies, and would deliver an unlimited source of personalized stem cells and result in new diagnostic and therapeutic methodology. Vodyanoy believes the greatest benefits could be in “pain management, developmental biology, tissue regeneration, organ reconstruction and diabetes and cancer prevention and treatment.”

Acupuncture Affects the Nervous, Circulatory, Endocrine and Immune Systems

Vodyanoy stressed that even if his hypothesis does not prove to be correct, the resulting research will result in a more complete comprehension of the fundamental properties of the various systems within acupuncture’s framework, which is known to have a positive therapeutic outcome on medical conditions pertaining to the nervous, circulatory, endocrine and immune systems.

Martin (1) stated:

Vodyanoy, was named a fellow of the National Academy of Inventors in 2013. He received a 2007 Nano 50 Award from NASA and two R&D 100 Awards by R&D Magazine in 2006 and 2007 for inventing his advanced microscopy system that allows scientists to observe nanostructures which cannot be seen with a conventional light microscope.

In spite of those incredible achievements and accolades credited to Vodyanoy, he remarkable stated “I am more excited about this project than any other in my career.”

Rather than the incorrect western medical concept of the acupuncture meridians being “mere lines on the skin”, ancient Chinese doctors considered acupoints to be “holes” on the surface anatomy. In deed all traditionally trained and qualified Acupuncturists can readily palpate those definite holes. The Chinese construct of the numerous meridian pathways was way more detailed and explicit, with TCM practitioners believing the meridian pathways are composed of a three-dimensional configuration, where some channels are superficial and just beneath the epidermis, while other channels flow very deeply inside the human body carrying “Qi” to the internal organs and reservoirs of the Eight Extra meridians.

Vodyanoy stated, “Much of the misconception of acupuncture results from Qi often being labeled as a ‘special energy,’ making it seem mysterious, rather than defining it as a liquid containing stem cells with DNA,” he said.

North Korean Scientist Dr Bong Han Kim Discovered the PVS in the 1960’s

The Primo Vascular System was originally discovered by North Korean scientist Bong Han Kim in the early 1960’s. Kim published his results in a book printed in Korean, English and Russian, but he disappeared mysteriously in 1966 after communist authorities said his work was unproven. His lab was closed and most of the books disappeared, too, but a few copies still exist, and Vodyanoy has one. Martin (1) reported:

Dr. Kim believed many stem cells are from the chromosomes of dying cells and that the primo-vascular system creates a new assembly of recycled DNA without mitosis, or cell division,” Vodyanoy said. “He did not document his methodology, so scientists have not been able to reproduce his results, but we at Auburn have confirmed the existence of the primo-vascular system with microscopy and we will seek to replicate his findings through our research.

When a bodily injury occurs, cells divide to make new cells to repair the injury. However, Vodyanoy says the division causes errors in the cells that can lead to chronic diseases including Alzheimer’s, cancer, diabetes and many other illnesses. Regeneration and repairing by the primo-vascular system would not have this problem if Kim’s work is proven accurate.

Will the Indolence of Academia Resist this Revolutionary Anatomical Advancement?

Martin stressed, “In the second century AD, Galen described the blood circulatory system,” Vodyanoy concluded. “Fifteen hundred years later Thomas Bartholin discovered the lymphatic system. Medical advances from the acupuncture meridian system could be comparable to the discovery of the lymphatic system. We should not wait hundreds more years for this to happen.”


(1) Martin, C., ‘Auburn scientist discovers microstructure of primo-vascular system, revealing possible foundation of how acupuncture works’. (Published: 12/01/2016, Last updated: 12/05/2016). Available from  <>

(2) Gordon, L., The ‘Mystical’ TCM Triple Energizer. Its Elusive Location and Morphology Defined. Xlibris Press, Australia. 2016.

(3) Tyme, ?., ‘Student Manual on the Fundamentals of Traditional Oriental Medicine’. (1997 spiral-bound book). Available from <>


I wish to sincerely thank Dr Paul U. Unschuld for the selfless and tireless work he has committed to make many ancient Chinese medical classics available in English for study and research. My book is based predominantly around his scholarly work ‘Nan-Ching: The Classic of Difficult Issues’. I also wish to sincerely thank Professor Unschuld for permission to use citations of his translation in my book. His translation of ‘Nan-Ching: The Classic of Difficult Issues’ can be purchased from the following link:

To Securely Purchase the Book, Click the ‘BUY NOW’ Button!




             Sanjiao’s Mystique Demystified


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