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TCM San Jiao Organ and the Connective-Tissue Metasystem (Fascial Network) are Related to the Primo Vascular System



I am Dr Louis Gordon and I am an acupuncturist. I practice acupuncture from ANTRAC Acupuncture Clinic in Middle Ridge, Toowoomba, 4350, Queensland, Australia. Just as fresh clean life-giving water bubbling up from a natural spring is vital to sustain life, my WELLNESS information will help YOU to sustain a healthy vibrant life beaming with optimal wellness. Call for more information on (07) 4636 6100.

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 How are the TCM San Jiao Organ and the Connective-Tissue Metasystem (Fascial Network) Related to the Primo Vascular System?

Loofah sponge model of primo vascular system (Bonghan-Fascia Model, Lee and Soh, 2009 and 2011).

In the book titled The ‘Mystical’ TCM Triple Energizer. Its Elusive Location and Morphology Defined, the author, Louis Gordon (1) states:

33.40 Primo Vascular System (PVS) Development and Proliferation Precedes the formation of all Other Structures during Embryogenesis

Regarding the critical initial formation of the PVS during embryogenesis, the book (2), on page 13, states:

Proliferation of the [PVS] meridians takes place ahead of proliferation of any other organs, such as the blood vessels and the nervous system. Embryo development follows the following steps: the step for the formation of the primo vessel blast cell occurs 7–8 h after fertilization; the step for primordial primo vessel occurs 10 h after fertilization; the step for the formation of primitive primo lumens occurs 15 h after fertilization; and the final step for the completion of the primo lumens occurs 20–28 h after fertilization. The fact that the proliferation of the PVS precedes the formation of other structures suggests the PVS plays an important role during development of an organism. (Emphasis is mine)

The PVS is shown here to be intimately and inextricably involved with embryogenesis from as early as 7–8 hours post fertilization. I suggest that this is the initiation of the gate of life and also of the initiation of the Triple-Energizer Metasystem. This PVS structural conception is obviously tied to ‘the original influences which man has received from father and mother’, as discussed in the eighth Difficult Issue of the Nan Ching. As this omnipresent PVS structure is ubiquitous throughout the adult body, the embryological vestige is truly dispersed throughout the entire body via the omnipresent Connective-Tissue Metasystem that is the domicile of the Triple- Energizer Metasystem, which is intimately entwined with the PVS.

What new scientific findings have been made regarding this fascinating newly-discovered organ complex?

In my book (1) I discuss the remarkable electrical properties of collagen. If collagen was ONLY a structural component of fascia as is generally believed by biologists and physiologists, why would it possess numerous electrical properties? Collagen is a semiconductor, and possesses piezoelectric and photoconductive properties similar to fiber optic cables. Modern research is only now realising the intricacy, importance and omnipresence of the connective tissue metasystem, and several lead researchers consider the connective tissue metasystem represents an individual omnipresent organ system that exists in a formless shape that is present external to all other defined organs and structures throughout the entire body, such that it is the largest organ structure in the body.

Ancient Chinese Physicians Considered San Jiao Organ was the Largest Organ in the Body

In an analogous way, Ancient Chinese scholars believed that the San Jiao Organ was the largest Fu organ in the body. They further believed the Sanjiao was a literal organ that was located inside the body but outside the other Zangfu, that is all of the other 11 organs. Due to this configuration, the Sanjiao has no defined morphology, and was thus known to have “no form” because it took on the form of the surrounding organs. Obviously these two ‘formless’ organ complexes, that is the modern connective tissue metasystem and the ancient San Jiao Organ, can be seen to occupy the identical space within the body. This exactness of the two organ complexes is only the very beginning of the similarities between the ancient TCM Sanjiao Organ and the modern understudied and under-appreciated organ-complex called the Connective-Tissue Metasystem.

This easy-reading informative book is essential for anyone wanting to know all about the functionality and location of the Sanjiao (aka San Jiao, Triple Warmer, Triple Heater), and the nature and properties of the Connective-Tissue Metasystem (CTM), which I believe are one-and-the-same. I propose that the PVS is an integral component of the CTM, and thus the San Jiao, which I discuss further below. This illuminating book can be securely purchased by clicking the ‘BUY NOW’ button at the bottom of this page.

The Structure, Nature and Composition of San Jiao in TCM

Regarding the very structure, nature and composition of San Jiao, in the book titled ‘The Geology of the Modern Cancer Epidemic: Through the Lens of Chinese Medicine’, Lahans (3) states:

In the Ling Shu and Nan Jing, the gao and huang were linked to Source theory and the San Jiao. The gao and huang refer to fatty, greasy tissues like ubiquitous fascia and connecting membranes. There are many modern references to the fascia, the ligaments, the lymph system (including the mesenterium and the cysterna chyli), the thymus gland, and other “netlike greasy membranes.” (Emphasis is mine).

Ancient TCM sages believed that the San Jiao Organ was composed of “nothing but membranes”. As Lahans (3) notes above in his book, in the two medical classics, the Ling Shu and the Nan Jing the San Jiao Organ was said to be composed of the “gao” and the “huang”, which “refer to fatty, greasy tissues like ubiquitous fascia and connecting membranes”

The Primo Vascular System (PVS) has Properties Attributed to San Jiao

In the ‘Abstract’ of the 2016 article titled ‘Primo Vascular System: A Unique Biological System Shifting a Medical Paradigm’, the authors (4) state:

The primo vascular system has a specific anatomical and immunohistochemical signature that sets it apart from the arteriovenous and lymphatic systems. With immune and endocrine functions, the primo vascular system has been found to play a large role in biological processes, including tissue regeneration, inflammation, and cancer metastases. Although scientifically confirmed in 2002, the original discovery was made in the early 1960s by Bong-Han Kim, a North Korean scientist. It would take nearly 40 years after that discovery for scientists to revisit Kim’s research to confirm the early findings. The presence of primo vessels in and around blood and lymph vessels, nerves, viscera, and fascia, as well as in the brain and spinal cord, reveals a common link that could potentially open novel possibilities of integration with cranial, lymphatic, visceral, and fascial approaches in manual medicine.

I find it interesting that there is a recently-discovered third circulatory system other than the arteriovenous and lymphatic systems, and its functions are associated with “immune and endocrine functions”, and it plays a large role in biological processes, including tissue regeneration, inflammation, and cancer metastases.

Composition of Primo Fluid

Regarding the immunological composition of the primo fluid, in the article titled ‘Primo Vascular System: A Unique Biological System Shifting a Medical Paradigm’, the authors (4) state:

The composition of the primo fluid in rats has been found to be rich in granulocytes and secretory granules, including mast cells (20%), histiocytes (53%), eosinophils (16%), neutrophils (5%), and round immature stem-like cells (3%), but relatively poor in lymphocytes (1%). Researchers measured a high concentration of adult small embryonic-like stem cells expressing the stem cell biomarkers OCT4, NANOG, and CD133.

From the composition of the primo fluid above it can be seen that it is rich in various cells involved in the defensive and protective immunological system.

The Many Diverse Functions of the PVS

Regards the many functions of the PVS, the authors note that the PVS has been shown to have six different major functions in the body. These include the following six functions.

1 – Circulation and Transport

The authors (4) state, ‘The primo fluid circulates in a network of vessels and nodes with multiple independent and interconnected paths’. While the entire PVS has not been fully mapped in detail in humans, the diverse pathways so far elucidated from superficial PVS vessels in the skin extending to the deepest PVS vessels connected to major organs is very analogous to the various acupuncture meridian systems described by ancient TCM e.g. from superficial Tendino-muscular meridians extending deeper and deeper to Luo meridians, Divergent meridians, the 12 Primary meridians, and finally to the very deepest 8 Extra meridians respectively. The authors further note, ‘The circulatory nature of the PVS can help transport chemical substances and factors of inflammation, as well as cancer cells (metastases), in the primo fluid. The PVS has been foreseen as a potentially novel drug delivery route, particularly for cancer treatment’.  This property fulfils the “job-specification” assigned to San Jiao thousands of years ago.

2 – Immunologic and Regenerative Functions

The authors (4) note, ‘Primo fluid contains a high concentration of cells resembling stem cells called primo microcells, approximately 1 to 4 mm in diameter, whose exact function remains to be determined.’ They further state, ‘Kwon et al, at the National Cancer Center of Korea, confirmed that primo fluid was abundant with other immune cells, such as macrophages, eosinophils, and mast cells.’ A major role attributed to the San Jiao Organ involves repairing and maintaining structures throughout the body (which stem cells do) and supplying defensive Wei Qi to fight of Pathogenic Evil Qi (which includes viruses, bacteria, mould spores and allergens which cause infections and heat the blood respectively).

3 – Endocrine Functions: Neurotransmitter Pathway

Chikly, Roberts, and Quaghebeur (4) state, ‘The PVS has also been described as an endocrine organ that transports hormones. Catecholamines (eg, adrenalin, noradrenalin) have been identified in the primo fluid in vessels on the organ surface of rabbits and rats using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.’ The San Jiao Organ is considered a major regulator of hormonal imbalances throughout the body.

4 – Bioluminescence (Biophotons)

The authors (4) reported that several researchers including Dr Fritz-Albert, ‘described different types of biophoton emissions within living systems. The PVS contains a high concentration of nucleic acids and is surrounded by collagen. Consequently, Lee et al and Soh suggested that the PVS can be a good medium to transport or communicate tissue bioluminescence (biophoton)’. Biophotons are at the centre of super-fast communication throughout the body. The San Jiao is the major organ of communication from a TCM perspective, as it directs the integration, communication, and coordination of the TCM five-organ systems of the body.

5 – Inflammatory Process

The authors (4) note, ‘Wang et al showed that the PVS of infected rats carried pathological products, such as polymorphonuclear neutrophils and fibroblasts, which may be involved in inflammatory processes’. In TCM, fever is a signal which confirms that the San Jiao is assembling the defensive Wei Qi to fight off any foreign pathogenic invaders, e.g. viral or bacterial infections.

6 – Cancer

Regards the mechanism of cancer growth control, Chikly, Roberts, and Quaghebeur (4) state, ‘In mammals, the PVS has been identified on the fascia surrounding tumor tissue, as well as found connected to tumors.’ They further note, ‘The PVS may be a newly recognized mechanism in cancer growth control but may also be a novel path for cancer metastasis, because primo vessels are more concentrated around tumor sites, and migration of tumor cells is more efficient inside the PVS than in the lymphatic system’. Note that the authors (4) acknowledge that “the PVS has been identified on the fascia“. Regarding the causative factors of cancer, in the book titled ‘The Geology of the Modern Cancer Epidemic: Through the Lens of Chinese Medicine’, Lahans (3) states:

The Source is the gate of breathing. “The organs, stems and branches, the phases are all ripples out from this energetic center.” Shallow breathing, for whatever reason, weakens the Source. Physical imbalances affect the Source. Emotions affect bodily energetics, which in turn affect the Source. Dietary problems are manifested because of the close energetic link between the Source and the energies derived from food. And so there is a link between the Source, the San Jiao, and all of the causative factors for cancer. (Emphasis is mine).

Note that Lahans (3) states that there ‘a link between the …. San Jiao, and all of the causative factors for cancer.’

Subsequently, it is shown that the six recently elucidated properties of the PVS exactly mirror the TCM-defined properties of the San Jiao Organ. Regarding the potential integration of cranial, lymphatic, visceral, and fascial aspects of the PVS, Chikly, Roberts, and Quaghebeur (4) state, ‘Primo vessels are ubiquitous channels for transporting fluid with immune and endocrine functions. The PVS could reasonably link tissue functions across systems’. Chikly, Roberts, and Quaghebeur (4) conclude:

It is difficult to fathom that the prolific PVS was not identified in medicine until the 21st century. Both Kim and Soh initially targeted their research toward the meridian system but found something more far reaching. The discovery of the PVS in intravascular and extravascular spaces, in the central and peripheral nervous systems, on the surface of and within viscera, in cutaneous layers, and in most body systems, may signify a novel and complete morpho-dynamic system, with the potential to reshape paradigms in medicine and manual therapy.

Primo Vascular System is an Integral Component of Both the CTM and the San Jiao Organ

It appears from modern scientific research that the Connective-Tissue Metasystem (CTM) is certainly synonymous with the ancient TCM San Jiao Organ, and subsequently, that the Primo Vascular System is an integral component of both the CTM and the San Jiao Organ.

TCM practitioners are on the Forefront of this Brave New-World PVS Discovery

TCM practitioners, for example, Acupuncturists are on the forefront of this brave new-world discovery. We have been trusting ancient Chinese wisdom and mastering the formulation of sinological treatment protocol for thousands of years, and while doubters foolishly stood back and denied the existence of acupuncture meridians, claiming that their science degrees afforded them the right of judgement, soon they will be humbled and brought to their knees. Very modern science is making a mockery of the very beliefs of modern scientific teachings of only a decade ago. I believe that the “art of acupuncture” will prove to be more scientifically grounded, than the supposed wisdom of supposed science-based medicine.

For more information on the relationship between the Acupuncture Meridian System, the Primo Vascular System, the Connective-Tissue Metasystem and the San Jiao Organ, please be inspired and purchase your personal copy of the book, The ‘Mystical’ TCM Triple Energizer. Its Elusive Location and Morphology Defined by clicking the link below.


(1) Gordon, L., The ‘Mystical’ TCM Triple Energizer. Its Elusive Location and Morphology Defined. Xlibris Press, Australia. 2016.

(2) Soh, K. S., K. A. Kang, D. K. Harrison, The Primo Vascular System: Its Role in Cancer and Regeneration (Springer, 2012).

(3) Lahans, T., ‘The Geology of the Modern Cancer Epidemic: Through the Lens of Chinese Medicine’. (2013). World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. Available from <>

(4) Chikly, B., Roberts, P., and Quaghebeur, J., PhD ‘Primo Vascular System: A Unique Biological System Shifting a Medical Paradigm’. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, January 2016, Vol. 116, 12-21. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2016.002. Available from <>


I wish to sincerely thank Dr Paul U. Unschuld for the selfless and tireless work he has committed to make many ancient Chinese medical classics available in English for study and research. My book is based predominantly around his scholarly work ‘Nan-Ching: The Classic of Difficult Issues’. I also wish to sincerely thank Professor Unschuld for permission to use citations of his translation in my book. His translation of ‘Nan-Ching: The Classic of Difficult Issues’ can be purchased from the following link:

To Securely Purchase the Book, Click the ‘BUY NOW’ Button!




             Sanjiao’s Mystique Demystified


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